The upshots of involvement of the United States which came to Afghanistan with an apparent end to fight terrorism, particularly Al-Qaeda, are against its slogans. If Al-Qaeda has been weakened in the region, instead other terrorist groups, who pose far greater threat and whose atrocities are several times barbaric and lethal than those of the former, have emerged. Daesh or the Islamic State (IS) terrorist group which is a threat not only to Afghanistan, but also the entire region is on the top of the list.
Suspicions about honesty of the United States in the war on terror worried regional powers, and they escalated to the extent that nearly all regional players now believe terrorism cannot be fought against and eliminated the way claimed by America. Following the disappointment and admission of defeat by American leadership in the fight against terrorism, some powerful countries were impelled to forge build relations with militant groups for own safety.
Russians who view the tenuous situation of Afghanistan as a threat to their country resorted to establishing contacts with the Taliban, a direct consequence of the American dishonesty in the battle against terrorism, indeed. Although the US shouted counter-terrorism and counternarcotic slogans, there has been a retrogression in this struggle in Afghanistan even after its 15-year-long presence and expenditure of hundreds of billions of dollars. There are now more militant groups active in Afghanistan than ever, and opium cultivation has also grown from year to year.
It was estimated that the United States might hammer out a settlement to the Afghan conflict after the signing of the Afghan-US security pact known as the Bilateral Security Agreement (BSA) providing for the long-term American presence in Afghanistan, but experience of the past two years proved the calculation wrong. The deteriorating security in Afghanistan escalated the concerns of regional countries, including Russia to the degree that establishing ties with the Taliban was the only option for them to choose.